Numer czasopisma  

Geology, Geophysics & Environment

ISSN: 2299-8004

Data wydania
Vol. 50
No 1
Prawa dostępu
Dostęp: otwarty dostęp
Prawa: CC BY 4.0
Attribution 4.0 International
Uznanie autorstwa 4.0 Międzynarodowe (CC BY 4.0)

Rocznik czasopisma (rel.)
Rocznik czasopisma
Geology, Geophysics & Environment
Vol. 50 (2024)
Artykuły numeru (rel.)
Otwarty dostęp
Determination of the seismic structure of the Earth based on joint analysis of gravimetric and seismometric data – a case study
(Wydawnictwa AGH, 2024) Karkowska, Kamila; Wilde-Piórko, Monika; Dykowski, Przemysław; Sękowski, Marcin; Polkowski , Marcin
The evolution of the Earth’s surface is driven by external and internal forces, the latter of which can only be studied indirectly. Knowledge about the structure of the Earth’s interior is very important for modeling and predicting the processes occurring at the surface. This study presents a new concept of joint analysis of the gravimetric and seismometric recordings of earthquakes for determining the seismic structure of the Earth down to the depth of 1250 km. The proposed method allows the use of gravimetric data without the known full transfer function of the instrument. Group velocity dispersion curves of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves up to the period of 550 s are measured based on the joint analysis of the recordings of superconducting gravimeter and broadband seismometers operating at the same location in five testing sites in Europe, allowing for the exploration of a broader response for incoming seismic waves. Averaged dispersion curves for earthquakes around the world for each site are inverted by the weighted linear inversion and Monte Carlo methods to estimate the distribution of shear-wave seismic velocity in the Earth’s mantle. A comparison of the deterministic and probabilistic inversion methods can excellently demonstrate surface waves’ ability to determine the Earth’s mantle structure. The inversion results are compared with the global ak135 seismic model (Kennett et al. 1995) to verify the proposed method.
Otwarty dostęp
Triggers of present-day rockfalls in the zone of sporadic permafrost in non-glaciated mountain region: the case study of Turnia Kurczaba (the Tatra Mts., Poland)
(Wydawnictwa AGH, 2024) Kajdas, Joanna; Gądek, Bogdan; Rączkowska, Zofia; Cebulski, Jarosław
In recent decades there has been growing evidence of the impact of ongoing climate warming on the frequency of rockfalls. However, these are not adequately documented, especially in non-glaciated, high mountain regions of middle latitude. This study comprehensively documents the Turnia Kurczaba rockfall, one of the most significant rockfalls recorded in recent decades in the Tatra Mountains. The precise projections of the volumes and distribution of rock losses and deposits, the determination of the trajectories, modes and speeds of movement of rock material, as well as information on the geological, morphological, and meteorological conditions behind the Turnia Kurczaba rockfall form a unique dataset. The data documents a spectacular episode in the contemporary development of a complex slope system in the Tatras in an all-encompassing way and can be used to validate and calibrate existing models and improve numerical simulations of other rockfalls, both for hazard and risk assessment and slope evolution studies. Moreover, in the context of archival data, they demonstrate that in the Tatra sporadic permafrost zone, only relatively small rockfalls have been recorded in recent decades. Their cause was not the degradation of permafrost but freeze-thaw processes with the co-participation of rainwater and meltwater. The largest of these occur within densely fractured cataclysites, mylonites, and fault breccias. The impact of rockfalls on the morphodynamics of talus slopes is uneven in the storied arranged rock-talus slope systems. Even colluviums belonging to the same slope system can differ in their development rate and regime, and different thermal and wetness drivers can control their evolution.
Otwarty dostęp
Risk-indicative or sustainable consumption? Consumers’ risk perception on conventional and organic food products in Poland
(Wydawnictwa AGH, 2024) Mazur-Włodarczyk, Katarzyna; Wódkowska, Agata; Gruszecka-Kosowska, Agnieszka
The consumption of organic food is becoming increasingly popular and, to avoid numerous threats to human health and the natural environment, the issues devoted to it require greater attention from decisionmakers, producers, and consumers. Consumer decisions have an impact on shaping food consumption patterns and recently the trend of the consumption of conventional versus organic food products has been widely discussed. This is especially true given the fact that the area of human health is strongly related to the consumption of food products produced under the challenges of environmental protection and sustainability. The study aimed to investigate if the perception of consumption among Polish respondents was risk-indicative or sustainable based on the animal, fruit, and vegetable products purchased from conventional or organic production. The results revealed that fruit and vegetable consumption was not identically related with socio-demographic features, but the income level equally affected consumer choices regarding the purchase of organic food products. Gender and marital status only influenced decisions regarding the purchase of organic fruit. The consumption of animal products regarding the frequency of their consumption did not reveal the features of sustainability. The metal accumulation index (MAI) for conventionally cultivated vegetables was not higher for all of the investigated vegetables, namely pumpkin, spring onion, cabbage, lettuce, spinach, and garlic. Our study contributes to addressing the knowledge gap on consumer choices about organic food products in Poland.
Otwarty dostęp
Numerical forecast of groundwater inflow to the mines of the Legnica-Głogów Copper District with a particular emphasis on the “Polkowice-Sieroszowice” mine
(Wydawnictwa AGH, 2024) Gurwin, Jacek; Wcisło, Marek
The paper presents the results of work on the numerical hydrogeological model of the mines of the Legnica-Głogow Copper District (LGCD) in Poland. Due to the extensive impact on the rock mass and the multilayer depression cone caused by drainage, the model covers an area of $3,049 \ km^{2}$. The complicated, mutual hydraulic connections of the multi-aquifer hydrogeological system required the model to cover the area beyond the range of mining areas, and to separate 17 numerical layers. The research was carried out in the GMS software environment using Modflow computing modules. The model was updated successively, since its structure, parameters, and boundary conditions are subject to change. It was also additionally calibrated based on new data from measurements in piezometers and changes recorded in inflows to the excavations. The simulations made it possible to determine the exact water balance, with a particular emphasis on the Sieroszowice mining area, where sudden unexpected inflows were noted. Subsequently, two prognostic simulations were performed to estimate dynamic water inflows to mine workings in the years 2020 and 2025.
Otwarty dostęp
Multi-stage fault formation and REE distribution in the surrounding Devonian dolomites in the south-eastern part of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland)
(Wydawnictwa AGH, 2024) Nieć, Marek; Pawlikowski, Maciej ; Sermet, Edyta
Metallogenic studies carried out in the Holy Cross Mountains indicate a relationship between mineralization and fault tectonics in Devonian formations. The impact of fault formation on the geochemistry of host rocks has not yet been studied. Mineralogical and geochemical studies of fault core gouges and damage zones in the fault walls of Devonian dolomites in the Budy and Jurkowice quarries were carried out. In the clay-carbonate filling of the fault fissure, the presence of two generations of Fe sulfides, the increased content of Zr, Nb, U and Th in relation to the surrounding rocks was noted. In the fault walls of the dolomites, iron sulfide and hematite mineralization were found. Research on the REE content indicates that it is lower in the fault walls than in those located far from it, while it is clearly higher in the fault gouge, especially in terms of the content of “heavy” elements (HREE). This indicates both the supply of some components to the fault zone from external sources and their displacement from the surrounding rocks. It was also found that the fault was renewed before and after the Neogene at least twice (Badenian).
Otwarty dostęp
The impact of the geographical environment on the hydromorphological conditions of watercourses in southern Poland
(Wydawnictwa AGH, 2024) Borek, Łukasz
Hydromorphological assessment of watercourses provides much valuable information about the riverbed and its immediate surroundings, including the influence of geographical environmental factors along with anthropogenic pressures in the catchment area. This paper presents diversity of hydromorphological conditions of 77 sections located on 39 watercourses in southern Poland in three European ecoregions: Eastern Plains, Central Plains and the Carpathians. The study was based on the Hydromorphological Index for Rivers (HIR) method and two sub-indices: Hydromorphological Diversity Score (HDS) and Hydromorphological Modification Score (HMS). Basic and multi-dimensional statistical analyses were performed to identify the main gradients of the geographical environment and the variables that contribute most to the total variability of HIR. The highest mean HIR values were recorded in the Carpathians ecoregion, then in the Central Plains and the lowest in the Eastern Plains, 0.70, 0.67 and 0.58, respectively. Significant differences were found between the Carpathians and Eastern Plains ecoregions in HIR values obtained. Hydromorphological differentiation is most influenced by altitude and geological type. The cluster analysis enabled two main groups of watercourses to be distinguished – the first one was dominated by variables showing HMS > HDS relationship, while the second one was dominated by HDS > HMS relationship. Multi-dimensional analysis provided additional information on the relationships between the variables and the sections studied. The greatest positive impact on the formation of the final HIR value had the variation of the riverbed slope and natural morphological elements of the bed bottom, while the greatest negative impact on HIR had the transformations observed in spot-check.
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