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  • Artykuł
    Otwarty dostęp
    Benefits from co-pyrolysis of biomass and refuse derived fuel for biofuels production: experimental investigations
    (2024) Magdziarz, Aneta; Jerzak, Wojciech; Wądrzyk, Mariusz; Sieradzka, Małgorzata
    Wydział Inżynierii Metali i Informatyki Przemysłowej
    The application of renewable fuels and waste for energy production is crucial environmentally and economically. Co-pyrolysis of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) offers a promising pathway for valuable products that combine various benefits including enhanced energy recovery, waste valorisation, improved product quality, and environmental sustainability. Consideration of specific feedstocks and optimization of process parameters are necessary to maximise the efficiency and effectiveness of the co-pyrolysis process. This work presents investigations of the co-pyrolysis process of lignocellulosic biomass wastes (rye straw and agriculture grass) and RDF. These biomasses ensure efficient decomposition. The RDF, high in carbon (78.5 %) and hydrogen (11.8 %), was predominantly plastic based. Based on Py-GC-MS studies at 600°C, it was observed that the addition of RDF to biomass caused a significant decrease in the share of organic oxygen compounds among the released decomposition products. Laboratory tests were performed in a fixed-bed reactor for raw biomass and RDF and 1:1 and 3:1 biomass to RDF mass ratio. The results demonstrated that the yield of char production decreased with the addition of RDF, which promoted the bio-oil yield. Despite, RDF pyrolysis meets problems, it was proved that co-pyrolysis of biomass and RDF is a good solution for their utilization.
  • Artykuł
    Otwarty dostęp
    Removal of REE and Th from solution by co-precipitation with Pb-phosphates
    (2023) Sordyl, Julia; Staszel, Kacper; Leś, Mikołaj; Manecki, Maciej
    Wydział Geologii, Geofizyki i Ochrony Środowiska
    The supply of technologically important rare earth elements (REE) is a concern in Europe, hence the recovery of REE from alternative sources has recently become widely investigated. One of the problems is the lack of cost-effective technologies for REE recovery from leaching solutions. The present work investigated the potential for recovering REE and Th from leaching solutions by co-precipitation with Pb phosphates. A set of four experiments were conducted using analytical reagent grade chemicals to analyze the effects of Pb and different pH on the efficiency of REE and Th removal from aqueous solutions. After selecting the best conditions, two additional experiments were performed using solutions obtained from leaching REE-rich apatite mine waste. The precipitates resulting from the experiments as well as the solutions before and after precipitation were analyzed. It was found that the formation of a crystalline mixture of REE- and Th- enriched pyromorphite, $Pb_{5}(PO_{4})_{3}Cl$, and Pb-phosphates, about which little has been known so far, was responsible for complete (>99%) removal of REE and Th from aqueous solutions at pH 4 and 6. At lower pH, the removal is incomplete except for Sc and Th, which probably form a distinct phases. Besides that, no fractionation of LREE and HREE was observed. The experiments included the study of solutions resulting from the leaching of REE-rich apatite waste, which may contribute to the development of new technologies for REE recovery from wastes.
  • Książka
    Otwarty dostęp
    Groby rektorów Akademii Górniczej i Akademii Górniczo-Hutniczej
    (Stowarzyszenie Wychowanków Akademii Górniczo-Hutniczej im. Stanisława Staszica w Krakowie, 2021) Sieński, Hieronim
  • Artykuł
    Otwarty dostęp
    W cieniu Akademii Sztuk Pięknych : od Oddziału Przemysłu Artystycznego Państwowej Szkoły Przemysłowej do Państwowej Szkoły Przemysłu Artystycznego w Krakowie (1891-1921)
    (Małopolski Związek Regionalnych Towarzystw Kultury, 2021) Krawczyk, Jerzy
    W pracy omówiono kształcenie w latach 1891–1921 artystów-rzemieślników w oddziale (wydziale) przemysłu artystycznego przy Państwowej Szkole Przemysłowej w Krakowie. Przedstawiono programy nauczania, nakreślono sylwetki nauczycieli zawodu oraz najwybitniejszych absolwentów. Na bazie oddziału w okresie międzywojennym powstała średnia Państwowa Szkoła Przemysłu Artystycznego, którą – po kilkukrotnej zmianie nazwy – ostatecznie po II wojnie światowej włączono w struktury Akademii Sztuk Pięknych.
  • Artykuł
    Otwarty dostęp
    Valorisation of tyre waste from a vulcanisation plant by catalytic pyrolysis – Experimental investigations using pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and drop-tube–fixed-bed reactor
    (2024) Jerzak, Wojciech; Wądrzyk, Mariusz; Sieradzka, Małgorzata; Magdziarz, Aneta
    Wydział Inżynierii Metali i Informatyki Przemysłowej
    This study focuses on the use of car tyre waste collected at a tyre repair station in Krakow (Poland). Waste from damaged tyres is disposed of as municipal solid waste. Therefore, the management of waste tyres already shredded by pyrolysis at 500 °C has been proposed. Tyre waste was hypothesised to be converted into valuable chemical products by pyrolysis in a hybrid reactor (drop-tube–fixed-bed reactor). On a micro scale, pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to analyse the pyrolysis process. It has been shown that the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons during pyrolysis clearly depends on whether the catalyst and tyre waste are mixed together or arranged in layers. Since the layered arrangement favoured the formation of hydrocarbons, such a system was used in the drop-tube–fixed-bed reactor. The high heating rate (500 °C/s) of tyre particles in the drop-tube–fixed-bed reactor at 500 °C allowed for the obtained a raw carbon black yield of 40.8 %. A similar yield of raw carbon black determined by thermogravimetric analysis for a heating rate of 0.17 °C/s) was observed at 800 °C. However, before commercial use, raw carbon black requires demineralisation because of its high ash content (approximately 50 %). The raw carbon black ash contained up to 90 % $SiO_{2}$, indicating that it could be a valuable catalyst material. Pyrolysis of tyre waste over the catalyst reduced the oxygen content in the oil and yield. The oil yields of tyre pyrolysis without a catalyst and over zeolite Y were 38 wt% and 35 wt%, respectively. The main components identified in the tyre pyrolysis gas were methane (27.6%), ethene (28.8%), and hydrogen (15.6%). The gas from catalytic pyrolysis was richer in CO and $CO_{2}$.